CERN scientists have announced the discovery of two new particles and the possible detection of a third

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Scientists at the European Nuclear Research Organization CERN, working at the Large Hadron Collider as part of the LHCb experiment, announced that they had discovered two new elementary particles that had not yet been seen before. Moreover, the data they obtained hints at the possibility of the existence of a third new particle, which is likely to be discovered after conducting targeted additional studies. The existence of two new particles completely fits into the framework of the existing Standard Model. These particles are baryons and belong to the same class as the protons used to conduct collisions in the depths of the collider.

The share of baryons accounts for a large part of the matter of the Universe, including protons, neutrons and other complex particles consisting of three smaller particles, called quarks. Quarks come in various types, which scientists call fragrance — lower, upper, charming, true, charmed, and strange. For example, protons consist of two upper and one lower quark, neutrons – from one upper and two lower.

But the quark composition of two new particles is different from the composition of any other known particles. The particles {b (6097) + and {b (6097) – consist of two upper and one charming, two lower and one charming quark, respectively. Such particles are known as lower baryons; this class includes four more known particles discovered at one time by scientists from the Fermi National Laboratory in the USA. However, this case is the first time when scientists were able to accurately measure the mass of such particles, which turned out to be six times the mass of the proton.

Note that the existence of two new particles was confirmed with a confidence level of 12.7 and 12.6 sigma, which makes it possible to attribute this to the category of confirmed discoveries. The existence of the third particle was confirmed with a confidence of 3 sigma, which is not enough to recognize this as an opening (5 sigma).

However, the third particle, the existence of which has not yet been proved, is of greater interest to scientists, because it belongs to the category of exotic particles, tetraquarks . Tetraquarks are exotic mesons, which consist not of two quarks, but of four, two quarks and two anti-quarks , to be exact. The particle Zc- (4100), according to preliminary data, includes two heavy charmed quarks, and its traces were found at the moment of decay of the b-meson.